This is what happens when I read multiple books at the same time! I finish them near each other!
This one is by Jack C. Haldeman and I found out about it ages ago and have had on my Amazon list for quite a while. It's also been out of print for a number of years; I finally bought a used copy and now I've finished reading it and here we are!
The interesting thing about this book (and the reason I was interested in it) is that it had a main character who's deaf. Not the main character, but one of them. The guy is a space pilot and all pilots are deaf. Some are Deaf, but mostly the pilots have their auditory nerves removed when they finish training. It's really interesting, 'cuz there's this whole elite group of people that are needed for the civilization, but that same group in our world tends to be marginalized.
There's also a great big conspiracy and terraforming and class issues and a little romance too.